This feature is still experimental. It has not been optimized for performance yet, and its implementation is known to have significant inefficiencies.

This expression language supports the following operators (listed in decreasing order of precedence).

Operators | Description |
---|---|

!, - | Unary NOT and Minus |

^ | Binary power op |

*, /, % | Binary multiplicative |

+, - | Binary additive |

<, <=, >, >=, ==, != | Binary Comparison |

&&,\ | \ |

Long, double, and string data types are supported. If a number contains a dot, it is interpreted as a double, otherwise it is interpreted as a long. That means, always add a '.' to your number if you want it interpreted as a double value. String literals should be quoted by single quotation marks.

Multi-value types are not fully supported yet. Expressions may behave inconsistently on multi-value types, and you should not rely on the behavior in this case to stay the same in future releases.

Expressions can contain variables. Variable names may contain letters, digits, '_' and '$'. Variable names must not begin with a digit. To escape other special characters, you can quote it with double quotation marks.

For logical operators, a number is true if and only if it is positive (0 or negative value means false). For string type, it's the evaluation result of 'Boolean.valueOf(string)'.

The following built-in functions are available.

name | description |
---|---|

cast | cast(expr,'LONG' or 'DOUBLE' or 'STRING') returns expr with specified type. exception can be thrown |

if | if(predicate,then,else) returns 'then' if 'predicate' evaluates to a positive number, otherwise it returns 'else' |

nvl | nvl(expr,expr-for-null) returns 'expr-for-null' if 'expr' is null (or empty string for string type) |

like | like(expr, pattern[, escape]) is equivalent to SQL `expr LIKE pattern` |

case_searched | case_searched(expr1, result1, [[expr2, result2, ...], else-result]) |

case_simple | case_simple(expr, value1, result1, [[value2, result2, ...], else-result]) |

name | description |
---|---|

concat | concatenate a list of strings |

like | like(expr, pattern[, escape]) is equivalent to SQL `expr LIKE pattern` |

lookup | lookup(expr, lookup-name) looks up expr in a registered query-time lookup |

regexp_extract | regexp_extract(expr, pattern[, index]) applies a regular expression pattern and extracts a capture group index, or null if there is no match. If index is unspecified or zero, returns the substring that matched the pattern. |

replace | replace(expr, pattern, replacement) replaces pattern with replacement |

substring | substring(expr, index, length) behaves like java.lang.String's substring |

strlen | strlen(expr) returns length of a string in UTF-16 code units |

strpos | strpos(haystack, needle) returns the position of the needle within the haystack, with indexes starting from 0. If the needle is not found then the function returns -1. |

trim | trim(expr[, chars]) remove leading and trailing characters from `expr` if they are present in `chars` . `chars` defaults to ' ' (space) if not provided. |

ltrim | ltrim(expr[, chars]) remove leading characters from `expr` if they are present in `chars` . `chars` defaults to ' ' (space) if not provided. |

rtrim | rtrim(expr[, chars]) remove trailing characters from `expr` if they are present in `chars` . `chars` defaults to ' ' (space) if not provided. |

lower | lower(expr) converts a string to lowercase |

upper | upper(expr) converts a string to uppercase |

name | description |
---|---|

timestamp | timestamp(expr[,format-string]) parses string expr into date then returns milli-seconds from java epoch. without 'format-string' it's regarded as ISO datetime format |

unix_timestamp | same with 'timestamp' function but returns seconds instead |

timestamp_ceil | timestamp_ceil(expr, period, [origin, [timezone]]) rounds up a timestamp, returning it as a new timestamp. Period can be any ISO8601 period, like P3M (quarters) or PT12H (half-days). The time zone, if provided, should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00". |

timestamp_floor | timestamp_floor(expr, period, [origin, [timezone]]) rounds down a timestamp, returning it as a new timestamp. Period can be any ISO8601 period, like P3M (quarters) or PT12H (half-days). The time zone, if provided, should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00". |

timestamp_shift | timestamp_shift(expr, period, step, [timezone]) shifts a timestamp by a period (step times), returning it as a new timestamp. Period can be any ISO8601 period. Step may be negative. The time zone, if provided, should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00". |

timestamp_extract | timestamp_extract(expr, unit, [timezone]) extracts a time part from expr, returning it as a number. Unit can be EPOCH (number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC), SECOND, MINUTE, HOUR, DAY (day of month), DOW (day of week), DOY (day of year), WEEK (week of week year), MONTH (1 through 12), QUARTER (1 through 4), or YEAR. The time zone, if provided, should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00" |

timestamp_parse | timestamp_parse(string expr, [pattern, [timezone]]) parses a string into a timestamp using a given Joda DateTimeFormat pattern. If the pattern is not provided, this parses time strings in either ISO8601 or SQL format. The time zone, if provided, should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00", and will be used as the time zone for strings that do not include a time zone offset. Pattern and time zone must be literals. Strings that cannot be parsed as timestamps will be returned as nulls. |

timestamp_format | timestamp_format(expr, [pattern, [timezone]]) formats a timestamp as a string with a given Joda DateTimeFormat pattern, or ISO8601 if the pattern is not provided. The time zone, if provided, should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00". Pattern and time zone must be literals. |

See javadoc of java.lang.Math for detailed explanation for each function.

name | description |
---|---|

abs | abs(x) would return the absolute value of x |

acos | acos(x) would return the arc cosine of x |

asin | asin(x) would return the arc sine of x |

atan | atan(x) would return the arc tangent of x |

atan2 | atan2(y, x) would return the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (x, y) to polar * coordinates (r, theta) |

cbrt | cbrt(x) would return the cube root of x |

ceil | ceil(x) would return the smallest (closest to negative infinity) double value that is greater than or equal to x and is equal to a mathematical integer |

copysign | copysign(x) would return the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument |

cos | cos(x) would return the trigonometric cosine of x |

cosh | cosh(x) would return the hyperbolic cosine of x |

div | div(x,y) is integer division of x by y |

exp | exp(x) would return Euler's number raised to the power of x |

expm1 | expm1(x) would return e^x-1 |

floor | floor(x) would return the largest (closest to positive infinity) double value that is less than or equal to x and is equal to a mathematical integer |

getExponent | getExponent(x) would return the unbiased exponent used in the representation of x |

hypot | hypot(x, y) would return sqrt(x^2+y^2) without intermediate overflow or underflow |

log | log(x) would return the natural logarithm of x |

log10 | log10(x) would return the base 10 logarithm of x |

log1p | log1p(x) would the natural logarithm of x + 1 |

max | max(x, y) would return the greater of two values |

min | min(x, y) would return the smaller of two values |

nextafter | nextafter(x, y) would return the floating-point number adjacent to the x in the direction of the y |

nextUp | nextUp(x) would return the floating-point value adjacent to x in the direction of positive infinity |

pow | pow(x, y) would return the value of the x raised to the power of y |

remainder | remainder(x, y) would return the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard |

rint | rint(x) would return value that is closest in value to x and is equal to a mathematical integer |

round | round(x) would return the closest long value to x, with ties rounding up |

scalb | scalb(d, sf) would return d * 2^sf rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set |

signum | signum(x) would return the signum function of the argument x |

sin | sin(x) would return the trigonometric sine of an angle x |

sinh | sinh(x) would return the hyperbolic sine of x |

sqrt | sqrt(x) would return the correctly rounded positive square root of x |

tan | tan(x) would return the trigonometric tangent of an angle x |

tanh | tanh(x) would return the hyperbolic tangent of x |

todegrees | todegrees(x) converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees |

toradians | toradians(x) converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians |

ulp | ulp(x) would return the size of an ulp of the argument x |