Table of Contents

Select Queries

Select queries return raw Druid rows and support pagination.

 {
   "queryType": "select",
   "dataSource": "wikipedia",
   "descending": "false",
   "dimensions":[],
   "metrics":[],
   "granularity": "all",
   "intervals": [
     "2013-01-01/2013-01-02"
   ],
   "pagingSpec":{"pagingIdentifiers": {}, "threshold":5}
 }
Consider using the [Scan query](scan-query.html) instead of the Select query if you don't need pagination, and you don't need the strict time-ascending or time-descending ordering offered by the Select query. The Scan query returns results without pagination, and offers "looser" ordering than Select, but is significantly more efficient in terms of both processing time and memory requirements. It is also capable of returning a virtually unlimited number of results.

There are several main parts to a select query:

property description required?
queryType This String should always be "select"; this is the first thing Druid looks at to figure out how to interpret the query yes
dataSource A String or Object defining the data source to query, very similar to a table in a relational database. See DataSource for more information. yes
intervals A JSON Object representing ISO-8601 Intervals. This defines the time ranges to run the query over. yes
descending Whether to make descending ordered result. Default is false(ascending). When this is true, page identifier and offsets will be negative value. no
filter See Filters no
dimensions A JSON list of dimensions to select; or see DimensionSpec for ways to extract dimensions. If left empty, all dimensions are returned. no
metrics A String array of metrics to select. If left empty, all metrics are returned. no
granularity Defines the granularity of the query. See Granularities. Default is Granularity.ALL. no
pagingSpec A JSON object indicating offsets into different scanned segments. Query results will return a pagingIdentifiers value that can be reused in the next query for pagination. yes
context An additional JSON Object which can be used to specify certain flags. no

The format of the result is:

 [{
  "timestamp" : "2013-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
  "result" : {
    "pagingIdentifiers" : {
      "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9" : 4
    },
    "events" : [ {
      "segmentId" : "wikipedia_editstream_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9",
      "offset" : 0,
      "event" : {
        "timestamp" : "2013-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
        "robot" : "1",
        "namespace" : "article",
        "anonymous" : "0",
        "unpatrolled" : "0",
        "page" : "11._korpus_(NOVJ)",
        "language" : "sl",
        "newpage" : "0",
        "user" : "EmausBot",
        "count" : 1.0,
        "added" : 39.0,
        "delta" : 39.0,
        "variation" : 39.0,
        "deleted" : 0.0
      }
    }, {
      "segmentId" : "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9",
      "offset" : 1,
      "event" : {
        "timestamp" : "2013-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
        "robot" : "0",
        "namespace" : "article",
        "anonymous" : "0",
        "unpatrolled" : "0",
        "page" : "112_U.S._580",
        "language" : "en",
        "newpage" : "1",
        "user" : "MZMcBride",
        "count" : 1.0,
        "added" : 70.0,
        "delta" : 70.0,
        "variation" : 70.0,
        "deleted" : 0.0
      }
    }, {
      "segmentId" : "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9",
      "offset" : 2,
      "event" : {
        "timestamp" : "2013-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
        "robot" : "0",
        "namespace" : "article",
        "anonymous" : "0",
        "unpatrolled" : "0",
        "page" : "113_U.S._243",
        "language" : "en",
        "newpage" : "1",
        "user" : "MZMcBride",
        "count" : 1.0,
        "added" : 77.0,
        "delta" : 77.0,
        "variation" : 77.0,
        "deleted" : 0.0
      }
    }, {
      "segmentId" : "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9",
      "offset" : 3,
      "event" : {
        "timestamp" : "2013-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
        "robot" : "0",
        "namespace" : "article",
        "anonymous" : "0",
        "unpatrolled" : "0",
        "page" : "113_U.S._73",
        "language" : "en",
        "newpage" : "1",
        "user" : "MZMcBride",
        "count" : 1.0,
        "added" : 70.0,
        "delta" : 70.0,
        "variation" : 70.0,
        "deleted" : 0.0
      }
    }, {
      "segmentId" : "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9",
      "offset" : 4,
      "event" : {
        "timestamp" : "2013-01-01T00:00:00.000Z",
        "robot" : "0",
        "namespace" : "article",
        "anonymous" : "0",
        "unpatrolled" : "0",
        "page" : "113_U.S._756",
        "language" : "en",
        "newpage" : "1",
        "user" : "MZMcBride",
        "count" : 1.0,
        "added" : 68.0,
        "delta" : 68.0,
        "variation" : 68.0,
        "deleted" : 0.0
      }
    } ]
  }
} ]

The threshold determines how many hits are returned, with each hit indexed by an offset. When descending is true, the offset will be negative value.

The results above include:

    "pagingIdentifiers" : {
      "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9" : 4
    },

Result Pagination

The PagingSpec allows the user to specify that the results of a select query should be returned as a paginated set.

The threshold option controls how many rows are returned in each block of paginated results.

To initiate a paginated query, the user should specify a PagingSpec with a threshold set and a blank pagingIdentifiers field, e.g.:

"pagingSpec":{"pagingIdentifiers": {}, "threshold":5}

When the query returns, the results will contain a pagingIndentifers field indicating the current pagination point in the result set (an identifier and an offset).

To retrieve the next part of the result set, the user should issue the same select query, but replace the pagingIdentifiers field of the query with the pagingIdentifiers from the previous result.

When an empty result set is received, all rows have been returned.

fromNext Backwards Compatibility

In older versions of Druid, when using paginated select queries, it was necessary for the user to manually increment the paging offset by 1 in each pagingIdentifiers before submitting the next query to retrieve the next set of results. This offset increment happens automatically in the current version of Druid by default, the user does not need to modify the pagingIdentifiers offset to retrieve the next result set.

Setting the fromNext field of the PagingSpec to false instructs Druid to operate in the older mode where the user must manually increment the offset (or decrement for descending queries).

For example, suppose the user issues the following initial paginated query, with fromNext false:

 {
   "queryType": "select",
   "dataSource": "wikipedia",
   "descending": "false",
   "dimensions":[],
   "metrics":[],
   "granularity": "all",
   "intervals": [
     "2013-01-01/2013-01-02"
   ],
   "pagingSpec":{"fromNext": "false", "pagingIdentifiers": {}, "threshold":5}
 }

The paginated query with fromNext set to false returns a result set with the following pagingIdentifiers:

    "pagingIdentifiers" : {
      "wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9" : 4
    },

To retrieve the next result set, the next query must be sent with the paging offset (4) incremented by 1.

 {
   "queryType": "select",
   "dataSource": "wikipedia",
   "dimensions":[],
   "metrics":[],
   "granularity": "all",
   "intervals": [
     "2013-01-01/2013-01-02"
   ],
   "pagingSpec":{"fromNext": "false", "pagingIdentifiers": {"wikipedia_2012-12-29T00:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:00:00.000Z_2013-01-10T08:13:47.830Z_v9" : 5}, "threshold":5}
 }

Note that specifying the fromNext option in the pagingSpec overrides the default value set by druid.query.select.enableFromNextDefault in the server configuration. See Server configuration for more details.

Server configuration

The following runtime properties apply to select queries:

Property Description Default
druid.query.select.enableFromNextDefault If the fromNext property in a query's pagingSpec is left unspecified, the system will use the value of this property as the default value for fromNext. This option is true by default: the option of setting fromNext to false by default is intended to support backwards compatibility for deployments where some users may still expect behavior from older versions of Druid. true